Computers have become an integral part of our lives, revolutionizing the way we work, communicate, and access information. They come in various sizes, possess different functionalities, and handle data in diverse ways.
Computer systems can be classified based on three main criteria:
- Size-based Classification
- Functionality-based Classification
- Data Handling-based Classification
Table of Contents
- 1 Size-based Classification of Computers
- 1.1 Supercomputers
- 1.2 Mainframe Computers
- 1.3 Mini Computers
- 1.4 Micro Computers
- 2 Functionality-based Classification of Computers
- 2.1 Servers
- 2.2 Workstations
- 2.3 Information Appliances
- 2.4 Embedded Computers
- 3 Data Handling-based Classification of Computers
- 3.1 Analog Computers
- 3.2 Digital Computers
- 3.3 Hybrid Computers
Size-based Classification of Computers
Supercomputers: The Pinnacle of Computing Performance.
Supercomputers are highly advanced computing systems designed to deliver exceptional performance beyond that of general-purpose computers. These cutting-edge machines are measured in FLOPS (Floating Point Operations per Second) rather than MIPS (Million Instructions per Second). With Linux-based operating systems running on the world’s top 500 supercomputers, countries such as China, the US, the EU, Taiwan, and Japan are engaged in ongoing research to develop even faster, more technologically superior supercomputers. These supercomputers play a vital role in fields like quantum mechanics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling, and physical simulations.
Throughout history, supercomputers have been crucial for cryptanalysis, with notable examples including PARAM, Jaguar, and Roadrunner.
Mainframe Computers: Powerhouses for Bulk Data Processing.
Mainframe computers, commonly known as “big iron,” serve as the backbone for large organizations’ computing needs. These robust systems excel in tasks involving bulk data processing, statistics, census data processing, and transaction processing. With their exceptional processing capabilities, mainframes often serve as high-capacity servers. The origins of most mainframe architectures can be traced back to the 1960s, and continuous research and development have resulted in significant advancements in size, capacity, and efficiency.
Prominent examples of mainframe computers include IBM z Series, System z9, and System z10 servers.
Mini Computers: Affordable and Versatile Computing Solutions.
Mini computers emerged in the market during the mid-1960s, offering a more cost-effective alternative to mainframe computers. Initially designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching rather than calculation and record keeping, mini computers gained popularity for personal use as they evolved. These smaller computers became possible with the advent of transistors, core memory technologies, minimal instruction sets, and less expensive peripherals like the ubiquitous Teletype Model 33 ASR. Unlike their larger mainframe counterparts that occupied entire rooms, mini computers could fit into one or a few-inch rack cabinets. This led to the term “minicomputers” being coined.
Examples of mini computers include personal laptops, PCs, and other similar devices.
Micro Computers: The Foundation of Modern Computing.
Microcomputers are small, affordable computers equipped with microprocessors as their central processing units (CPUs). They consist of a microprocessor, memory, and minimal I/O circuitry integrated onto a single printed circuit board. Microcomputers evolved from the larger and more expensive mainframes and minicomputers. Today, they serve as the foundation for the ubiquitous microcomputers and smart gadgets we use in our daily lives. Tablets and smartwatches are prime examples of microcomputers.
Functionality-based Classification of Computers
Servers: Enabling Dedicated Services for Clients.
Servers are dedicated computers designed to provide specific services to clients. They are named according to the type of service they offer, such as security servers or database servers. These specialized machines play a crucial role in facilitating various operations within a networked environment.
Workstations: Personalized Computing for Single Users.
Workstations are computers designed primarily for individual users. They run multi-user operating systems and cater to personal and commercial work requirements. These machines are commonly utilized for everyday tasks and offer enhanced capabilities for user productivity.
Information Appliances: Portable Devices for Limited Tasks.
Information appliances are portable devices specifically designed to perform a limited set of tasks, such as basic calculations, multimedia playback, and internet browsing. Often referred to as mobile devices, they have limited memory and flexibility and typically operate on an “as-is” basis.
Embedded Computers: Meeting Specialized Requirements.
Embedded computers are computing devices integrated into other machines to fulfill specific requirements. These devices execute instructions from non-volatile memory and do not require frequent reboots or resets. The processing units used in embedded computers differ from those found in personal computers or workstations and are tailored to meet specific needs.
Data Handling-based Classification of Computers
Analog Computers: Modeling Continuously-Changing Phenomena.
Analog computers utilize continuously-changeable aspects of physical quantities, such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities, to model and solve problems. These computers excel at processing variables that change over time and exhibit continuous behavior, much like an analog clock measures time using the distance traveled by its clock hands around the circular dial.
Digital Computers: Processing Information in Discrete Form.
Digital computers perform calculations and logical operations using quantities represented as digits, typically in the binary number system of “0” and “1.” They can solve problems by manipulating combinations of binary digits, enabling mathematical calculations, data organization and analysis, process control, and simulation of dynamic systems like global weather patterns.
Hybrid Computers: Combining Analog and Digital Capabilities.
Hybrid computers process both analog and digital data, leveraging the strengths of both types. These digital computers are capable of accepting analog signals, converting them into digital format, and performing further processing. Hybrid computers find applications in various fields, where the combination of analog and digital capabilities is advantageous.