What is a Polygon? – Shape, Types

A polygon is a two-dimensional closed shape in geometry, composed of straight line segments. It is formed by connecting several non-collinear points (vertices) with line segments (edges) to create a continuous, closed figure. Each vertex of the polygon is shared by two edges.

Polygons are fundamental geometric shapes, and they come in various types, based on the number of sides and angles they have.

The word “polygon” comes from the Greek words “poly” (many) and “gon” (angle). So, a polygon is a shape with many angles.

The minimum number of sides for a polygon is three. A polygon with three sides is called a triangle. A polygon with four sides is called a quadrilateral. A polygon with five sides is called a pentagon. And so on.


Polygons can be regular or irregular. A regular polygon is a polygon with all sides of equal length and all angles of equal measure. An irregular polygon is a polygon with at least one side or angle that is not of equal length or measure.

Polygons are used in many different areas of mathematics and science. They are used in construction, engineering, and architecture. They are also used in trigonometry and surveying.

Some Facts About Polygons

  • The sum of the interior angles of a polygon can be calculated using the following formula:

where n is the number of sides of the polygon.

  • The perimeter of a polygon can be calculated using the following formula:
P = sum of the side lengths
  • The area of a polygon can be calculated using the following formula:
A = (1/2) × base × height

where base is the length of any side of the polygon and height is the perpendicular distance from the base to a vertex of the polygon.

Polygons are a fascinating and important part of geometry. They have many different properties and applications, and they continue to be studied by mathematicians and scientists today.